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Thursday, March 20, 2014

[Archive] Chenjerai Hove's Bones: Assignment, 3/20/14

Image: A section from page 1
We have discussed the historical background of Hove's novel. This assignment is designed to get you thinking about the novel's literary elements. This assignment is open book, open blog, and open class notes. You may not use any other online sources for this assignment.

Assignment: Each group of three to four as assigned in class will answer the following questions in a comment to this post. Provide properly cited textual evidence for each answer.

1. What is the setting of this novel?
2. Who are the principle characters and what are their relationships to each other?
3. What is the principle conflict of this novel?
4. Describe is the author's style.
5. Describe the author's tone, overall, throughout the novel.
6. What is the symbolic significance of bones in the novel?
7. What is the thematic significance of the novel's narration and point of view?
8. What does disease symbolize in the novel?

Each comment must include all group members' names and use standard English. Numbers 1-4 of this assignment count as one participation grade; numbers 5-8 count as one participation grade. All work is due by midnight on 3/25/14.

40 comments:

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  3. Sammie and Hannah
    1. The story takes place in South africa the country of Zimbabwe during 1972-1980.
    2. Marita and Janfia are the two main principal characters. Janfia is Maritas son’s girlfriend which would have made her the daugher-in-law if they got married. Marita is the son’s mother. “'Mother, wait, I will fetch the letter now and read it for you. It is our letter, you bore the son that wrote this letter, and he would have left you to live with me till his head grew white hairs” (Hove 3).
    3. The conflict of this story is the Rhodesians were fighting for their independence from British and the Africans were fighting for their freedom from the Rhodesians. The Africans were referred to has terrorist of the country. Janifa said about Maritas son this, “Yes, I have the letter even
    though I know that I would never marry him. How can I marry a terrorist, do they not
    say a terrorist eats people without roasting them? Do they not say a terrorist takes the
    wives of other men, sleeps with them before the eyes of their very husbands, then asks
    the parents to roast their children for him? I cannot marry a terrorist, a killer who kills
    his own mother” (Hove 2). “You see Marita, there are too many shadows where we come from. Too many shadows . . . shadows, shadows without end. Think of it, I am standing under a tree, the tree decides to fall on me, crushing me to shreds, breaking my rib. Do you not remember
    the day the baas boy kept on saying that I was feigning pain, that there was nothing
    seriously wrong with me?” (Hove 12). The Africans are known has shadows and nobody pays attention to them and that is what this quote is saying.
    4. Hove has no style in his writing, he just speaks freely without any organization. He tries to keep the quotes of what people say separated but it does not really flow together. Everything is just a mixture together.
    5. Hove’s tone is very “blunt” throughout the story because he just speaks freely. He does not care what choice of words he uses throughout the text either. “You bitch, bitching around with the teacher when you should choose people of your age. From that day, he injured my heart in all sorts of ways, as if I had swallowed all the needles on this farm, all of them, pains from even the tip of my breasts” (Hove 2). He also can be cruel and does not care how it may hurt the readers feelings and tells it how it is.

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    1. 3. Corrected... Person v. Society. So the conflict is marita wanting information about her son vs the racism of the county against African Americans.

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  4. Sammie and Hannah
    6. Bones to the Africans mean that if they are dead and their bones are buried into the earth then that land is claimed to be theirs. Wherever their body may be that land will always be theirs. “... I stood on the cliff of the mountain rock and saw the bones of my people falling like
    feathers from the bird high up in the sky. Who would save them crashing on to the hard
    soil, the hard rock beneath? . . .” “Arise all the bones of the land. Arise all the bones of the dying cattle. Arise all the bones of the locusts. Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands” (Hove 27).
    7. In this novel, the story is all about Marita and how the characters of each chapter relates to her in a personal way. The chapters have a different person’s point of view on Maritas’ situation with her son. “Marita, a womb is a dark place, nobody knows what will come out of it. So if it
    brings out something with flowers on its head, it must be kept under the armpit. It must
    be kept under the armpit where not many hearts know. Many hearts must not know the
    things hidden under the armpit, Marita” (Hove 64). This quote shows that the other characters care for marita and want to keep her safe.
    8. Disease in this novel is not an actual disease, it means that something bad is about to happen to the people. They should take caution and pay attention to their surroundings. “The disease
    that eats into the mouth of the cattle and goats and the donkeys. It does not tell us to sit
    and wait for other things to happen. It tells us that the clouds have changed in the manner
    they used to bring rain to us. When rain falls from earth to sky, we must know that
    things have begun to happen. Things we cannot understand. It is a sign that the sky has
    been tampered with. Bad hands are in it. Bad hands are inside the whole story” (Hove 25). This quote says, that the people can not sit and watch the “disease” they need to fix the problems and pay attention to the signs.

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  5. Nick Sauble, Alyssa Dietz, Jacob Neal


    1. It is set in Rhodesia (present day Zimbabwe) during 1972-1980

    2. Marita is the mother of the boy who wrote the love letter the Janifa. Janifa and Marita’s son would have gotten married, but he went off and joined the rebellion. Marita is a kind women who misses her son dearly, she asks Janifa to read the letter he wrote. “ Marita, she is like that, a gentle fire which burns all the time (Hove 24). This quote shows how even though Marita is gentle hearted woman she will stop at nothing to be with her son again. Manyepo is the owner of the farm where Marita and her husband live. Manyepo is a cruel man, and is very cruel to his workers.” Manyepo calls it hard work, but to think that Marita only gets a cup of beans for her food because she does not have children, it pains me inside ( Hove 24). This quote is showing how he is cruel to the people that work for him because Marita does not have children she is only allowed one cup of beans to eat after working on the farm all day.

    3. The Rhodesians were trying to gain independence from Britain while at the same time the natives were trying to gain independence from the Rhodesians. The natives were often referred to as terrorists. “How can I marry a terrorist, do they not say a terrorist eats people without roasting them? Do they not say a terrorist takes the wives of other men, sleeps with them before the eyes of their very husbands, then asks the parents to roast the children for them?” (Hove 2)

    4. Hove’s writing does not have a set structure to it. He will start a page off with the persons name who is the one talking. Then when he quotes what someone is saying you have to try and figure out the one who is speaking. He will then go on for lines at a time without a paragraph break. On the other hand he will sometimes start a new paragraph in the middle of a sentence, as seen on the middle of page 5.

    5. The tone of Hove’s writing is blunt and upfront. Throughout the writing Hove states that the people are struggling for their freedom and how hard the conditions are on the farm. ”The cloth on her head is torn and soiled with mud. She has carried the water-pot from the well for a long time. The cloth helps her head not to crack” (Hove 5). This quote shows the harm the hard farm work has on the workers bodies.

    6.The Africans see the bones as a way of claiming the land. Even though that person may be dead and gone, the burial of their bones show that the land will always be theirs. “Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands” (Hove 27).

    7. Hove put each chapter into a different person’s perspective to show that each story has many different sides, but in the end they are telling the same story. Each of the chapters is showing how the narrator of that chapter relates back to Marita. “Marita, I say all the time, you shame me, I feel ashamed when I read this letter, a love letter to me. But for you I will read it, for you and nothing else, but the shame in my heart weighs on me like a stone” (Hove 1). This is showing how Janifa cares for Marita even though they are technically not related. The only thing bring them to together is Maritas’ son.

    8. The disease that Hove talks about is actual a symbol for the people trying to colonize the land, along with their actions as well. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, your own fathers and mothers. Disease has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children” (Hove 25).

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    1. Corrections:

      #3. Person Vs. Society
      Marita wants to leave the farm and go find her son. She knows that if she would leave the farm, she will be killed. By her leaving she is causing problems between her and the colonist that took over her home land.

      #7 There are two sides to every story. Each person experiences events differently.

      #6 The ancestors of the people living on the land are buried beneath them. The use of bones is symbolic because the natives are forever tied to the land through their ancestors. It is also significant because they are fighting against their oppressors. During this fight for freedom many people lost their lives. These people will be buried in the soil which they died fighting to protect.

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  6. Alysha McCleaf, Gillian Brandes, Erin Septer, Xavior Williams

    1.In Rhodesian around 1980 which is now Zimbabwe.

    2.Marita is the mother of the boy that ran away. She asks his girlfriend Janifa to read the letter that he wrote to he before he left everyday. “But she calls me to read the letter all the time without end, even in the night” (Hove 1) she misses he son and the letter is the closest thing that she has of him. Another character is Chisaga. He is the cook for everyone’s boss that owns the land, Manyepo. Chisaga seems to have an in with the boss and looks to be treated much nicer than the other slaves. “Marita thinks the job I do is the best on the farm” (Hove 17)

    3. The conflict that arose in the story was that the Rhodesians were fighting for their independence. They were trying to break away from the British, while the Native Africans were trying to free themselves from the Rhodesians. The Africans were referred to as the terrorists. This is seen through the quote of a Rhodesian, “How can I marry a terrorist, do they not say a terrorist eats people without roasting them? Do they not say a terrorist takes the wives of other men, sleeps with them before the eyes of their very husbands, then asks the parents to roast the children for them?” (Hove 2).

    4. The author is very confusing. He has a character talk for many lines and doesn’t use quotation marks. He also doesn’t separate into different paragraphs. He could be doing this to symbolize how confusing the different liberation struggles going on at the same time could have been with whites against whites and blacks against whites.

    5. Hove’s tone throughout the story is very upfront with you. It is quite evident that he wants to get his point across. Hove doesn’t care about how his words will make you feel, he will tell you straight how it is. “ The cloth on her head is torn and soiled with mud. She has carried the water-pot from the well for a long time. The cloth helps her head not to crack” (Hove 5).

    6. The Africans see the bones as claiming their land. They believe that after you die your bones that are in the Earth makes it still your land. “Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands” (Hove 27).

    7. The sequence the story is in shows each story from a different perspective. It also shows how each of the characters relates to Marita. This quote shows how the other characters want to keep her safe, “ Marita, a womb is a dark place, nobody knows what will come out of it. So if it brings out something with flowers on its head, it must be kept under the armpit. It must be kept under the armpit where not many hearts know. Many hearts must not know the things hidden under the armpit, Marita” (Hove 64).

    8. The disease is the burden of the Africans conquerors and the negative effects they have on them. The colonizers have always been a problem for the natives and will continue to be one unless they fight for their freedom. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, our own fathers and mothers. Disease had sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children” (Hove 25).

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    1. correction 3) the conflict was the colonial power stopping marita from leaving to see if her son was still alive.

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    2. correction 7) there is aways two sides to every story. different people have different stories of what happened.

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  7. Shannon Kelly
    Nicole Pierson
    Rachel Cerratani
    Kiersten Michel

    1.This story takes place during 1972-1980 in Rhodesia, which is now known as Zimbabwe.

    2. Marita is the main character of the story. Her son ran away to join the liberation struggle. Janifa is a young woman who also works on the farm. Marita asks Janifa to read her a love letter her son once wrote to her in order to remember what her son had been like. She pleads with Janifa, “Can you be kind enough to read for me the letter he left, it is the only thing that can tell me a little about him” (Hove 2).
    Manyepo is the white man in charge of the farm that Marita and the other people work on (Hove 6). He forces them to work for him for small amounts of food. In addition, he doesn’t tolerate rebellion of any sort.
    Chisaga is the cook of Manyepo. He desperately wants to sleep with Marita, which she uses to her advantage by telling Chisaga that if he steals money for her to use to find her son then she will sleep with him (Hove 16). She states that “his greed for women is too much… Manyepo trusts him so much… So Chisaga has stolen money for me. He expects to sleep with me when he is not working”.
    Marita’s husband, Marume, is another character in the story. He does not want Marita to leave him to find her son. He doesn’t believe she should go against Manyepo’s wishes and that she should stay (Hove 12). He states that he “will be lucky to come out of it alive” after having to face Manyepo and tell him where his wife has gone. He is also ashamed that he hasn’t been able to expand his family with his wife Marita. They only conceived one child and he ran away.

    3. While the people of Rhodesia under colonial rule are fighting for their independence, Marita’s son has gone off to war and hasn’t been heard of since. She desperately needs to know whether he is alive or dead, but everyone wants to stop her from going to the city to find out for herself for many reasons. She is putting everything on the line so she can finally be at peace. When asked what she will do when she finds her son, she states that she “will be happy”. That is all she wants, and the people that try to stop her can see the determination in her (Hove 11).

    4.There isn’t much structure to Hove’s writing besides chapters. He writes freely as if he were speaking it. His paragraphs tend to go on for a long time as well, sometimes taking up an entire page. In addition, he doesn’t always clarify who is speaking at certain times, which can make it difficult to read. However, it flows like a poem and like it is to be originally spoken but written down like an oral narrative. Lines such as “disease flies in the sky like the fish-eagle that heralds the coming of the season of rains” show the poetic flow that the author exemplifies in his writing (Hove 25).

    5. I think the author’s tone overall throughout the novel is indignant and disdainful. It is clear that Hove is angry with the injustice that these people experience at the hand of their oppressors. He sees this oppression by the whites as a “disease” (Hove 25). He calls for the rise of the people in fighting back (Hove 27).

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    1. Corrected #3
      The principle conflict is between Marita and the idea of white supremacy.

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  8. Shannon Kelly
    Nicole Pierson
    Rachel Cerratani
    Kiersten Michel
    6. The bones represent all that is left of the people of that land. They have been torn down by “disease”, which represents their oppressors. However, the bones will rise and fight for their independence against the strangers. “Arise all the bones of the land. Arise all the bones of the dying cattle. Arise all the bones of the locusts. Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands” (Hove 27).

    7. The author tells the story from different characters’ points of view. By doing this, he is able to give insight of each person’s thoughts and reactions to what is going on. For example, chapter 5 is written from Chisaga’s point of view (Hove 17-22). In addition, chapter 3 is told from Marume, Marita’s husband’s point of view (Hove 11-14).

    8. In this novel, disease symbolizes colonialism. The white oppressors are destroying everything the people know and believe, leaving behind only bones. They take away all their power and force them to work and slave for them. These strangers in their land are like disease destroying their culture. Hove states that, “disease has eaten into the wealth of your soil. Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, your own fathers and mothers. Disease has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children” (Hove 25). He also uses the metaphor that their oppressors are “white locusts”. “Disease comes like a swarm of white locusts… The locusts of disease will eat into the field of our harvests until we remain like orphans in the land we inherited for out children” (Hove 25).

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    1. Corrected #6:
      The bones can also represent the idea that the Africans are tied to the land because their ancestors have lived, died, and been buried there. They do not want "strangers" in their land. In addition, they believe that their ancestors will empower them, and that they are not alone. Their numbers, in spirit, are much larger than in flesh.

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    2. Corrected #7:
      This story is written in first person, switching from one character's view to another. The author, through various view points of the characters, is able to show how each character is affected by racist white supremacists. In addition, while learning about Marita's various struggles it is helpful to be able to understand how other people feel about her struggle.

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  9. Tawah Alsindi
    Abdullah Alrasheed

    1. What is the setting of this novel?
    Bones is set on a commercial farm on post-colonial Zimbabwe where Manyepo slaves the people into working and often screams at them. The people want to protest, but kept their silence in order to live.
    “Manyepo was here, fuming as if the villagers had annoyed him by coming to offer their sweat to him. He growled like a lion with little ones… Did someone say I was opening a refugee camp? … People must learn to work, not to loiter around as if waiting for manna from heaven (page 20). "

    2. Who are the principle characters and what are their relationships to each other?
    In this story, I can see three characters that stood out—Marita, Janifa, and Chisaga. Marita’s son ran away from home to become a terrorist. With that, Marita abandoned her husband and her work in the fields in order to look for her son in the city. To pay for her trip, Marita made a deal with Chisaga—to steal money from Manyepo, his employer, in return for sexual favors. Marita, though, never intends to keep her part of the bargain. In turn, Chisaga sexually abuses Janifa, whom Marita considers as her daughter-in-law.

    “Do you know Chisaga? He is a good man, but his greed for women is a bit too much. He came to me and pleaded that he will do anything if he can sleep with me…I said he should steal some money for me from Manyepo's safe in the house where he cooks for him every day. Since Manyepo trusts him so much, he will not think it is him (page 17)” – Marita.

    “Chisaga has done to me. Chisaga tore me to shreds, and all that bleeding just because he wanted to satisfy his desires (page 55).” – Janifa

    3. What is the principle conflict of this novel?
    The characters in the novel are each facing personal struggles for freedom against the colonizers such as Manyepo. All throughout, we were informed of the the prohibitive social and economic structures upon them and how they were able to struggle on each they that they have to deal with it. There is also discrimination between the educated and non-educated. Being able to read and write will give a person higher status and bring money. In the following passage, we can see Marume’s regrets of not staying in school much longer: “Ask the baas boy. We were together in school, and I used to beat him up even in the forest fights we had when we herded cattle. But now he kicks me around like a small boy because he was able to stay at school much longer than me. He can write and speak the language of the white man (page 13).” There are conflicts, though, with the educational system which makes it hard for children to endure going to school. “They command, you know. They command even my own parents to send this or that, or else your son, your daughter, will be out of school for ever. They command (page 2).”

    4. Describe is the author's style.
    Hove’s style is mainly narrative which relies multiple narrators—Janifa, Chisaga, etc. The story is narrated first person however, judging from the first line, it is evident that the narrators did not tell their stories in written form but in an oral form. Hove attempts orality by creating characters which stress out the importance of words—Marita and her ability to tell stories and pass on her knowledge, and Manyepo verbally hurting his peasants. In the following passage, Janifa also stresses out the importance of words. “Words have weight, Marita. Words from a child's mouth are like feathers, real feathers. They fall on the lips and are blown away by the wind. Words with strength do not suffer the night's dew. They remain on their legs even after a storm which has passed. Let your words be like the mountains which I found the same age when I was born and still they are full of power, standing there all the time doing the same things. Words must be like that, erect like the thing of a little boy on waking up, promising the girls that when I grow up certain things will happen which are being made now. That is what strong words are about, Marita (page 19).”

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  10. Tawah Alsindi
    Abdullah Alrasheed

    5. Describe the author's tone, overall, throughout the novel.
    Overall, it gives us the cultural world where the characters are living in. The tone is intense and hopeless, seeing that are aware of the unjust treatment that they were given but they cannot do anything about it. It gives a little glimpse of hope, though, which will make the characters endure everything that they are suffering. Still, in the end, nothing much has changed.
    “Be careful, Manyepo. You must not make Chisaga angry. He will put dreadful things in your food and then watch you eat…I eat fire sometimes, but I have to control myself because my father taught me that even a chiefs son is a commoner in other lands. In my own village you would not shake my beard the way you do here, Manyepo. I would have cut your throat a long time ago (page 12).”

    6. What is the symbolic significance of bones in the novel?
    Bones symbolizes hope for the people who are miserable and wanted to get free from Manyepo’s grasp. It tells the people to take action and not just be passive after witnessing all the struggles that they are facing under Manyepo’s authority. “Now, look at the bones littered on the plains…I do not know, but let me tell you that to remain silent after seeing all those signs is to wait for my own end (page 26).” We can say that “bones” is significant to make the people not forget about their ancestral land, that they are the rightful owners of this land and not some foreign stranger. It will strike them to gain strength and have courage to fight all these changes. “Arise all the bones of the land. Arise all the bones of the dying cattle. Arise all the bones of the locusts. Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands. Do not allow the shrines of your fathers to wilt under the arms of the strangers who behave as if they do not have shrines where they come from. Do not let your ancestors be praised by tongues they do not understand (page 27).”

    7. What is the thematic significance of the novel's narration and point of view?
    The thematic significance of this novel is somewhat ambiguous. At a glimpse, this novel is about the struggle of the people but finally attained independence. When we delve in deeply, though, we will see the extent of Marita’s suffering, and the people around her, under the authority of Manyepo and the government. We can also say that this novel hopes to address the issue pertaining to the situation of African women who are caught up in a dynamically changing situation under the colonists.
    “If you are taken and hit by the soldiers, do not think of giving up. Think that you have been given a medal to carry on the fight without fear. How can people fear death when they are dying slowly in poverty, disease and ignorance? A people that fears death will never enjoy freedom from the heavy chains of being called boys by people of the same age, men and women. To refuse to die for the motherland is to refuse to wear the medal of birth which gave us this land (page 42-43).”

    8. What does disease symbolize in the novel?
    Disease symbolizes colonialism. Just like disease, colonialism “has eaten into the wealth of your soil… has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children” (page 25). The peasants, who should be the rightful owner of the land, were slaved into working all day and night. Meanwhile, Manyepo enjoys the riches of the land.
    “Disease comes like a swarm of white locusts covering the trees, breaking the branches with their weight… will eat into the fields of our harvests until we remain like orphans in the land we inherited for our children” (page 25). In this passage, we can say that colonialism has been slowly tearing apart the hope of the people working in Manyepo’s farm. People don’t have much choice but to be passive since they have to toil and earn their keep if they want to have a food to fill their stomachs.

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  11. Zadok Miller, Tyler Coleman

    1. The story takes place in Rhodesia now known as Zimbabwe in Africa. The time period is during the second chimurenga, which occurs between 1972-1980.

    2. The principle characters are Janifa, and Marita. Janifa is the crush of Marita’s son during his teen years. Marita says “Janifa, read the letter again for me, please read it, read it all the time for me if you have the strength” (Hove, 1). This quote shows how much Marita misses her son, and that these letters are the only things that Martita has left of her son. This brings Janifa and Marita a little bit closer because they are able to share this bond of Marita’s son. Marita gives Janifa her pots, which is symbolism of her womanhood in the story. This brings Janifa and Marita even closer. “Marita, how can you give me your pots and cooking things like that? A woman giving away her pots and spoons is giving away her childhood” (Hove, 15).


    3. The principle conflict of the story is the people trying to stop Martia from leaving the city. On page 12 Marita’s husband says “Marita, do you not see shadows in all this? Now you stand up to tell you are to look for your son in the city, leaving me alone to face Manyepo with a story, how do you know think he will take it? I will be lucky to come of it alive Marita, alive” (Hove). Here you see Marita’s husband trying to keep Marita from going to the city because it would hurt the people in the village and him, her husband is looking out for the betterment of the people.

    4. The story is meant to be a novel, but it is written to sound like an oral narrative. Chenjerai Hove writes it to sound like an oral narrative to make a statement to the British colonies that their culture is still alive, and that there is nothing wrong with how they write. Hove also writes like this to show the British that they will not write how they are telling them to do so.

    5. Hove is upfront and to the point with his writing. He says what needs to be said for example on page 25 when he is using disease as a metaphor for colonialism, he makes it very clear that colonialism is a problem and you have to step up and make a difference. He also makes points very clear and blunt when he states, “A people that fears death will never enjoy freedom from the heavy chains of being called boys by people of the same age, men and women” (Hove, 43).


    6. Bones symbolize the people rebelling against colonialism. On page 27 the novel states, “Arise all the bones of the land…Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands” (Hove). This quote shows how they want all of the people to stand up and fight for the land that is rightfully theirs, and to kick out all of the colonists.

    7. The significance of the point of view is that every chapter is written about a character, so you get to delve deeper into that characters part in the story. For example in the first chapter it is titled “Janifa”, and in that chapter we learn more about Janifa and her close relationship with Marita, when you learn of Janifa’s relationship with Marita’s son.


    8. Disease symbolizes colonialism in this novel. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, your own fathers and mothers...Disease crawls on the rocks which you have known to sit there all the time for your protection…Disease comes like a swarm of white locusts covering the trees, breaking the branches with their weight” (Hove, 25). This quote touches on many of the points of colonialism. The last part of the quote talking about how disease is like a swarm of locusts suggests that colonialism is ever consuming and you can’t avoid it. The first two parts of the quote talks about how colonialism has invaded your life and how it takes things you care about away from you such as your culture and how you live every day life.

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    1. Addition for number #2: Chisaga, Mayepo's cook, is another principle character. Marita wants to leave the village but does not have the money to do so. Marita makes a deal with Chisaga, that she will sleep with him if he steals money from Mayepo.

      Correction # 3: The principle conflict is Marita against the white minority. If the white minority finds out Marita then she puts her whole village at risk of being beaten, or killed.

      Addition #7: The point view is too Marita's struggle from everyone else in the story.

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  12. Neil Dutton
    David Derco
    Brennan Lloyd
    Matt Petrie

    1) This novel takes place in Rhodesia, present day Zimbabwe.

    2) Marita and Janifa are the two main characters in the story. Marita is the mother of a freedom fighter and Janifa is his girlfriend. “She asked me to read the letter for her again today, Marita, every day she comes to me, all pleading, 'Janifa, read the letter again for me, please read it” (Hove 1) Manyepo is the owner of the farm and Chisaga who is Manyepos cook “But she does not fail to come to
    your fields to work harder than before… Chisaga, that fat cook who sometimes puts all sorts of things in your food when you make him angry.” (Hove 12).

    3) The main conflict in this novel is the sons support of the freedom struggle and its effects on the community, “I cannot marry a terrorist, a killer who kills
    his own mother” (Hove 2).

    4) Bones is written from of an interior monologue, mostly told by Janifa.

    5) Hove writes Bones from a realistic point of view to show what life was really like back during this time.

    6) Bones signify the link between the people of the community to the land which they live on. “Arise all the bones of the land. Arise all the bones of the dying cattle. Arise all the bones of the locusts” (Hove 27).

    7) The significance of how Bones is written is important because it shows that there is always more than one story to an event.

    8) Disease in Bones is as metaphor for how the actions of those now will become a burden for future generations. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, your own fathers and mothers. Disease has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children” (Hove 25).

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    1. Correction 3) The main conflict in this story is Marita, who is a black women living in colonized Rhodesia, has to travel to Mozambique to find her son who is a freedom fighter.

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  14. Chris Nichols, Clayton Evancho, Josh Kramolisch

    1. The novel takes place in Rhodesian, which is now known as Zimbabwe, around 1972-1980.

    2. Marita is the mother of the boy who ran away and wrote the love letter to his girlfriend, Janifa. She asked Janifa to read the letter to her that he wrote to Janifa every day. She shows that she wants this and that she misses her son when Janifa says, “But she calls me to read the letter all the time without end, even in the night,” (Hove 1). Marita wants her to read it because it is the last thing of her son she has.

    3. The conflict in the novel was that the Rhodesian people were fighting for their freedom. The Rhodesians were trying to break away from the British, and to add more fuel to the fire; the Native Africans were fighting for freedom from the Rhodesians. The Native African people were known as “the terrorists.” The quote that explains this is, “How can I marry a terrorist, do they not say a terrorist eats people without roasting them? Do they not say a terrorist takes the wives of other men, sleeps with them before the eyes of their very husbands, then asks the parents to roast the children for them?” (Hove 2).

    4. Hove’s thoughts don’t really tie in together throughout the novel. There really isn’t much organization at all. It is overall, kind of confusing due to the fact that he made the characters talk for long amounts of time, doesn’t use quotation marks, or even separate the writing into paragraphs.

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  15. Chris Nichols, Clayton Evancho, Josh Kramolisch

    5. The overall tone of the novel is very upfront and realistic. He tries nothing more than to get his point across. Hove also openly speaks his mind and isn’t afraid to be a little brash with his words. For example: “You bitch, bitching around with the teacher when you should choose people of your age. From that day, he injured my heart in all sorts of ways, as if I had swallowed all the needles on this farm, all of them, pains from even the tip of my breasts,” (Hove 2).

    6. The meaning of “bones” to the Africans was seen to be a sign of claiming land. In the text, it is said, “Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defined by strange feet and strange hands,” (Hove 27).

    7. In each chapter of the novel, Hove changes the perspective of the novel by switching to a different character. With this, it shows how each character relates to the mother, Marita. An example of the different perspective is that Chisaga’s point of view is given in chapter 5 and Marume’s is in chapter 3.

    8. The disease is the reference to the burdens of the African people by their conquerors and the negative effects that they have bared witness to. The natives have found that the people colonizing with only continue to be a problem unless they act on it. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, our own fathers and mothers. Disease has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children,” (Hove 25).

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  16. Te'Keyah Bailey, Hajara Chaudhry

    1. The setting of this novel is in Rhodesia 1972-1980 which is now known as Zimbabwe.

    2. The principle characters are Janifa and Marita. They would have been in-laws by Marita's son who is Janifa's boyfriend. "...the woman who would have been happy to be your mother-in-law" (Hove 3).

    3. The principle conflicts that the Rhodesians were fighting for independence from Britain while the native African people were fighting for freedom from the Rhodesians. "How can I marry a terrorist, do they not say a terrorist eats people without roasting them?" (Hove 3).

    4. Hove has no real style in the novel. His paragraphs are line after line with no honest structure. On page two he ends a paragraphs and spaces to start with a related quote from Marita that takes the rest of the sentences into a long paragraph to more than half of page three.

    Hajara Chaudhry, Te'Keyah Bailey

    5. The author displays a serious tone throughout the novel. "We are like children up the tree. We cannot blame the tree for its crooked leaves. The tree is the way it is, so we have to climb if we want the fruits" (Hove 21).

    6. Bones represents a sense of memories of the past and therefore are markers of identity. "The the keepers of this place will come and say . . . We will remove the chains soon when we know you are well . . . But I will take the broken chains with my own hands and say . . . Do not worry yourselves, I have already removed them by myself. I have been removing them from my heart for many years, now my legs and hands are free because the mountains and rivers I saw with my own eyes could not fail to remove all the chains of this place . . . Then I will go without waiting for them to say go" (Hove 65).

    7. The novel's narration is fragmented and puzzle piece like between the characters. This shows that there is always more than one story just different perspectives on the thoughts or issues. "Marita how you used to work so hard, sweating all the time so that Manyepo could harvest better all the time. How the skin of your palms cracked all the time and you did not mind . . . I am waiting for my son, that is all. He will come one day so that my sweat does not continue to be watering the fields of the white man . . . Marita would say without much pain in her eyes, calm eyes that saw many things in many hearts" (Hove 63, 64).

    8. The disease symbolize the misfortune that happened and that would continue to happen to the people of the land. "Disease flies in the sky like the fish-eagle that heralds the coming of the season of the rains. Do not let the eyes of disease inflict its pain on the land while you sit under the shade of the tree without a name as if all was well. No, you cannot be children without parents to warn them that fire burns." (Hove 25).

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    1. Correction for #3. The conflict is that Marita needs to travel to get to her son but this will be difficult because of the colonial occupation.

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    2. # 5 - The tone is depressing, serious, and also hopeful in that the author wants to not only explain the trials and troubles Marita and Janifa went through but of the people around them (of what was happening to the people). It was depressing as Marita tried to have hope that her son was alive, well and to get to him to see him. Serious in that Marita and Janifa are a sub-story descending from a larger problem that the author carefully planned and by his sentence structure shows seriousness. Hove lastly expresses hope by the end of the story from Janifa's point of view about how Marita is going to a better place and that she, Janifa will bare her chains and free herself when she feels like it. "We are like children up the tree. We cannot blame the tree for its crooked leaves. The tree is the way it is, so we have to climb if we want the fruits" (Hove 21).

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    3. # 6 - Symbolic: The ancestors are under the ground and are a part of the earth. So were the people that were still fighting to be trying to receive independence.

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    4. # 2 - Chisaga is a male who works for Manyepo as his cook and is threatening to tell on Marita going to find her son if she doesn't supply his sexual wants.

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  17. Stephanie Delao, Jasmine Lewis
    1. The novel took place between 1972-1980 and is set in a Southern African country of Rhodesia, which is now known as Zimbabwe.

    2. Marita and Janfia are two of the main characters. Marita is the mother of the boy who wrote the love letter to Janifa “'Mother, wait, I will fetch the letter now and read it for you. It is our letter, you bore the son that wrote this letter, and he would have left you to live with me till his head grew white hairs” (Hove 3). Janifa would have gotten married to the son, but they went against it and joined a rebellion. Marita is known as being a kind lady, but misses her son and wants to find him. Chisaga is Maritas husbad and works as Maneyepos cook. Maneyepo is known as not the owner of the farm but the man who runs the farm. He often treats his workers with cruelty and is where Marita and her husband work “Have you not seen how Manyepo swells with evil when his fields are not giving him what he has dreamt they would (Hove 23)?”

    3. What is the principle conflict of this novel? The natives were trying to get independence from the Rhodesians, the Rhodesians were fighting on their own for independence from Britain “How can I marry a terrorist, do they not say a terrorist eats people without roasting them? Do they not say a terrorist takes the wives of other men, sleeps with them before the eyes of their very husbands, then asks the parents to roast the children for them (Hove 2)?”

    4. When reading this I noticed that there was no structure in his writing. He was just writing without style and different organization. It is split up by the names of the characters, and he uses quotes to describe what the characters are talking about.

    5. Hove’s tone throughout the novel is pretty blunt. He’s straight forward about what is on his mind, and doesn’t fear the consequences. He tells what everyone else feels, but is afraid to say or show. For example, “A people that fears death will never enjoy freedom from the heavy chains of being called boys by people of the same age, men and women. To refuse to die for the motherland is to refuse to wear the medal of birth which gave us this land (Hove 43).”
    6. The symbolic significance of bones in the novel is the heavy content of death. The author clearly wants the reader to know death is nothing new where he is from. It is common unfortunately. “How can people fear death when they are dying slowly in poverty, disease and ignorance? (Hove 43)”
    7. The thematic significance of the novel’s narration and point of view is that it is seen from various sets of people. The people telling the story all have a different angle to what happened, and why. The author simply writing the name before the passage for the people as they speak is evidence.
    8. Disease in this novel symbolizes the African conquerors and them widely spreading throughout the continent and taking over and killing the natives. I concluded this throughout reading the story. There was no actual place I could find that specifically told me what disease symbolized.

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    5. 2. Chisaga is one of Manyepos workers. He cooked on the farm for Manyepo. He wants to be with Marita and to show that he sexually harasses her and bothers her.

      3. The main conflict was how the colonial power made it hard for Marita to get to her son who was a freedom fighter

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    6. 7. The author shows the view points of the characters. All the characters saw the story differently and had 2 sides to the story.

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  18. Alyssa Skelly, Domonique Hopkins, Ansel Borhauer
    1. This story is set in Southern Africa, the country of Rhodesia (currently known as Zimbabwe), during 1972-1980.
    2. Marita and Janfia are the two main principle characters. Janfia is Maritas son’s girlfriend which would have made her the daugher-in-law if they got married. Marita is the son’s mother. “'Mother, wait, I will fetch the letter now and read it for you. It is our letter, you bore the son that wrote this letter, and he would have left you to live with me till his head grew white hairs” (Hove 3).
    3. While it seems that the principle conflict is the fight for freedom between the Rhodesians, who were trying to free themselves from the British, and the native Africans, who were trying to free themselves from the Rhodesians, the actual conflict lies within the colonial power. The conflict is between Rhodesian society and the effects of the colonial power. Society is discriminated against and put into a hierarchy based on gender and race, and the colonial power gives authority to the white gender, especially men. This allowed the white men to act out against the natives, especially black men and women.
    4. The author’s style is unstructured, and therefore could be described as an occasional stream of consciousness with free lines. There are points where the author goes on for many lines without any distinct punctuation, but the author does quote the dialogue of his people.
    5. Hove’s tone throughout the novel is very blunt and blatant. The author does this to be very realistic and obvious about the events and feelings of his native people. This tone allows the reader to fully understand the intensity of the fight for freedom, but it also shows the dark details. The author clearly makes a point with this tone, and it creates a vivid image in the reader’s mind.
    6. The symbolic significance of bones in this novel is for the people who are fighting against their oppressors. The native people faced “disease”, or oppression, which resulted in a great amount of death and destruction. Bones represent this death and destruction, and creative a very grim and powerful image. However, the presence of bones of the people of Zimbabwe represents a hope for their fight for freedom. “Now, look at the bones littered on the plains…I do not know, but let me tell you that to remain silent after seeing all those signs is to wait for my own end” (Hove 26).
    7. The thematic significance of this novel is that each chapter is written from a different point of view. Many characters are introduced and their point of view is offered to the reader, which makes this novel more relatable and challenging to interpret. An example of this is chapter 3, which is told from Marume’s (Marita’s husband) point of view (Hove 11-14).
    8. In this novel, disease symbolizes the killing of the natives by the African conquerors. It is a descriptive word for the great misfortune that occurred during this time, but also describes how Africa will be impacted in the future. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, our own fathers and mothers. Disease has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children” (Hove 25).

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  19. Cristen, Emmy Jo, Alyssa and Ben

    1.) This story takes place in the southern African country of Rhodesia (now known as Zimbabwe) during their second Chimurenga from 1972 to 1980.

    2.) Marita is the mother of Janifa’s boyfriend. Marita would have been Janifa’s mother-in-law if her son had not ran off to join the rebellion. She is very kind, but misses her son dearly and is determined to find him. “Marita, she is like that, a gentle fire which burns all the time (Hove 24).” This shows how while she is gentle and kind, she isn’t going to stop until she finds her son.
    Janifa is the girlfriend of Marita’s son and she reads Marita the letter he wrote her every time she asked. “She asked me to read the letter for her again today, Marita, very day she comes to me, all pleading . . . But Marita still calls it the best thing I have ever done for her (Hove 1).”
    Manyepo is the white man who oversees the farm where Marita and Chisaga work. He can be very cruel to his workers when they don’t please him the ways he expects them to. “Have you not seen how Manyepo swells with evil when his fields are not giving him what he has dreamt they would (Hove 23-24)?”
    Chisaga works as a cook for Manyepo and is trusted by him, which means he gets treated better than the other workers. He wants Marita but she doesn’t feel the same way, but she agrees to be with him in order for him to cover for her with Manyepo. “Cooking isn’t a good thing for a man, not a man like me. But Marita thinks the job I do is the best one on the farm (Hove 17).”

    3.) The principle conflict is Marita trying to find her son by going against a racist, white government. Everyone was against her, even her fellow Shona people. The government made out the rebels fighting for their freedom to be terrorists and punished anyone who supported them until even the rebels’ families turned against them. The government wanted everyone to think the rebels were these terrible, awful people to persuade them not to fight. They thought if they could instill enough fear into the Africans, they wouldn’t try to rebel anymore. “How can I marry a terrorist, do they not say a terrorist eats people without roasting them? Do they not say a terrorist takes the wives of other men, sleeps with them before the eyes of their very husbands, then asks the parents to roast the children for them (Hove 2)?”

    4.) There isn’t structure to Hove’s writing in the modern sense. He goes on for lines and lines at a time without a paragraph break. When he is quoting what people say he uses apostrophes instead of quotation marks. And he mixes in the words of multiple people within one paragraph. Sometimes he doesn’t make it obvious who is saying what and it all just blends together. There isn’t really a standard writing outline he is following, it is almost the complete opposite of what most people are used to reading in a typical novel. Such as the ending paragraph on 42 and continues to the beginning of page 43. The paragraph takes up most of the page. Hove just writes and writes without breaking it up into paragraphs. It seems more like the words are spoken, as if someone is telling a story, rather than structured English writing. It’s more like a written oral narrative than it is a novel.

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  20. Cristen, Emmy Jo, Alyssa and Ben

    5.) The tone of this writing is very realistic and upfront. Hove doesn’t sugar coat anything. He blatantly states how much people are struggling for freedom and how hard the conditions on the farms are for them. “ . . . Listen to Manyepo shouting at the other women who have not finished weeding their daily portion (Hove 8).” “A people that fears death will never enjoy freedom from the heavy chains of being called boys by people of the same age, men and women (Hove 43).” These quotes show how cruel Manyepo is to his workers and how afraid people are to fight for their own freedom because they’re afraid of the consequences. Hove makes it clear how hopeless the Shona were for their freedom. Their oppression made them so outraged it inspired them to fight back. Hove’s writing is very honest.

    6.) Bones are a way of the native Africans putting their claim on the land. They think that even after they die, their bones are still in the Earth and it still makes it their land. The Shona believe strongly in their ancestors, their family being buried there is almost as if their souls remain. They don’t want to leave their families so they stay to fight for them. Their ancestors are a source of support and give them a cause to fight. The presence of their ancestors gives them strength and ‘numbers’, it’s more symbolic than it is actual. “Wield the power of the many bones scattered across the land and fight so that the land of the ancestors is not defiled by strange feet and strange hands (Hove 27).” This is a way to encourage Africans to fight for their freedom in order to not shame their ancestors.

    7.) The reason each chapter is from a different person’s perspective is to show multiple sides of the same story. Each chapter is about the narrating character’s interaction with Marita. Marita is the main character, but none of the chapters are from her perspective. It’s all about Marita’s connections to the narrators and how they see her as she goes to any lengths possible to find her son. The theme is to demonstrate how deep a mother’s love is and how far a mother will go for her child. Marita is convinced to find her son no matter what. By telling the story from multiple people’s perspective, they whole story is being told because everyone sees Marita’s journey in a different light. “Marita would say without much pain in her eyes, calm eyes that saw many things in many hearts (Hove 64).” This explains how important she was to people, even though she was never a narrator.

    8.) The disease Hove talks about isn’t an actual disease, instead it is the burden of their conquerors and the negative effects that has on them. “Disease has eaten into the wills of your ancestors, your own fathers and mothers. Disease has sucked the juice of the land you inherited for your children (Hove 25).” This quote explains how their colonizers aren’t only a problem now, but they have been for their parents and their grandparents and it will continue to be for their children unless they fight for their freedom.

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