Office Hours: TTh 12:30-1:30 p.m., and by appointment, Gregory 154

Class Meeting Time: TTh 9:30-10:45 a.m., Henkel 107

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

[Archive] Ceremony Assignment for Wednesday, 2/27/13

Photo: Native American Literature

We have discussed the relationships among healing, ceremony, and storytelling in Laguna/Pueblo culture. We will continue exploration of these links in writing today.

Assignment: In a two- to three-paragraph comment to this post, answer this prompt: in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Betonie says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). What does Betonie mean by "witchery"? What does he mean by the claim "we invented white people"? Finally, what is the nature of Betonie's relationship with Tayo?

You will begin work on this very short essay in class today; you may finish at any time prior to the deadline posted below. Use standard English. Cite textual evidence from Silko's novel. Remember: summarize or paraphrase most evidence and quote only when the exact phrasing is unique or especially important. Your comment may respond to previous comments as long as it otherwise fulfills these assignment criteria. Citation includes in-text citation and a list of Works Cited. See the citation link on this blog for instructions. This assignment counts as one participation grade and is due by midnight on 2/28/13.

40 comments:

  1. In Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Betonie says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). When Betonie speaks about "witchery" he is talking about beliefs, cultures and primarily their differences. Betonie provides Tayo with the healing process of "ceremony" and tayo exclaims that this is the healing in which the white "medicine men" were keeping him away from. Also after Tayo is made uncomfortable by the human teeth Emo carries around he is left to believe that the belief and culture (witchery) of the white people are all that is left.

    When Betonie says, "we invented white people," it is a similar situation to when Tayo wishes the rain away. The people of their tribe and others brought about the white man themselves without realizing same as Tayo feels he got rid of the rain without realizing. In the story told after Betonie's quote it states that the witchery of an unknown source created the white man because of the peoples unconscious disregard for the unknown witchery (123-128). Betonie is regarded as just Tayo's therapist but it seems to be that Betonie offers a turning point in this book by providing Tayo with ceremony or healing process. Betonie is the first person Tayo has opened up his entire story and thoughts too which opens up a stronger bond between the two than others in the book.

    Silko, Leslie. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Books. 1977. Print.


    ReplyDelete
  2. In Ceremony, Betonie the medicine man says, “White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people…because we invented white people.” (132) When Betonie speaks of ‘witchery’ as something that makes people see things that they should not, or what they want to believe. “They want us to believe all evil resides with white people.” (132) Witchery is the hate that people can have for one another based on race. When Betonie says they invented white people, he is saying that the Indians have added fuel to the fire of why they dislike white people. They continue to perpetuate their thinking on how the whites stole their land and how their modern inconveniences are destroying the world. They have invented this picture and feeling towards white men that they cannot shake.
    Betonie is a medicine man, but he is also a guide and teacher for Tao. He is helping Tayo along his journey, helping him complete his ceremony. He gives Tayo advice; “Nothing is that simple, you don’t write off all the white people, just like you don’t trust all the Indians.” (128) Tayo confides in him, how he believes that the cure for his sickness “would be found only in something great and inclusive of everything.” (126) It is Betonie’s greatness that will help him. Betonie wants him to get better, wants to help Tayo through this. He says, “We all have been waiting for help a long time. But it never has been easy. The people must do it. You must do it.” (125) Betonie helps shed some light on how Tayo can fully heal.



    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York, NY: Penguin, 1986. Print.

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  3. In Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Tayo travels to Betonie's hogan to be healed. He begins telling him about his friend Emo and how he described Indians having "nothing compared to white people" (122). He further explains how the Indian ceremonies are no good against the sickness that comes from the white people's wars, bombs and lies. (122). Betonie thus begins his story on how the witch people tricked the Indians into thinking that all evil resides with white people . (122) Betonie explains that "white people are only tools that witchcraft manipulates....because we invented white people" (122).
    Betonie claims that the Indians invented white people because he is referring to the story the witch in the back of the room told the other witches in a ceremony. They were having a contest to see who could tell the scariest story. She foresaw the white people coming and their sickness and culture coming with them. She explains the guns they bring with them and how they “can shoot death faster than the eye can see” (125). The other witches get upset at this and ask her to recall the story, but since it is already out there, it exists forever. This witch “invented” the white people in her story and therefore predicted who would come destroy their culture and take their land. They describe the white people as evil, but it is in fact the witches who are evil.
    Betonie and Tayo are related not only because Betonie is his healer, but because they are both connected to Josiah. Josiah is a father figure to both of them. He had a relationship with a Mexican woman who was Betonie’s mother. Therefore, Betonie and Tayo are, in a sense, brothers.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  4. Chris Lyons
    Silko is comparing witchery to evil in the book. And she is saying that white people are being used by evil to discriminate against the Indians. I think when she says, “we created the white people” (Silko 122) she means that the Indians gave white people power over them so they get taken advantage of. Also, the Indian tribes don’t use the same type of guns that white people use so it might seem like witchery to them when they go to fight in wars.
    And when the Indian men come back from fighting in wars they have mental disorders like post traumatic stress disorder, but they cannot figure out what is wrong with them or how to help them so they think there is witchery involved. The Indians think it is witchery because they have never seen anything like it before and the people that come back seem like they have gone crazy.
    She also says that the Indians can learn to deal with the white people. I think that this means that over time they can learn the custom and ways of white people and will be able to interact with each other as equals. They have to learn how to force the white people to accept them as equals instead of the white people discriminating against them.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York:
    Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  5. In Leslie Marmon Silko’s, Ceremony, Betonie tells Tayo about the witches that got together in a cave and tried to out do each other with witchery. The last witch told a story in which she “made” white people and had them come from Europe and take their lands and homes. When Betonie refers to “witchery” he is referring to the witch that told the story and who controls the white people. He is also referring to how the witches convinced them that the white people are the source of the evil, with their bombs, and wars. They are tricking them into thinking that everything bad comes from the white people and their inventions.

    Betonie is referring to the story the witch told when he says that Indians invented white people. The witch told the story about the white people and essentially predicted the white people and so they interpreted that as them creating them. They see white people as the source of all-evil when it was the witch that told the story and created them.

    Betonie is Tayo’s healer. However he seems to be more than that because Tayo finally opens up to him and tells him everything which helps them create a stronger bond between them. They are also connected through Josiah.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  6. In Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony, Betonie says, “White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people, with their machines and their beliefs. We can because we invented white people.” When Betonie says “witchery” he is talking about the tools of evil and how the white people manipulate these tools to disguise their evil. The manipulation of white people as tools of evil creates this witchery as it forces the Native Americans to look no further into what is happening in their own destruction and to remain helpless. Witchery often deals with deception and trickery and this is exactly what is happening here as the white people are deceiving the tribes.

    Betonie also claims that, “we invented white people.” This claim is in reference to the story about the witch predicting the coming of the white people and was eventually correct. The Indians interpreted the prediction from this witch as the creation of white people since her prediction soon became true.

    Betonie’s relationship with Tayo came to be, as Betonie became Tayo’s healer. Both Betonie and Tayo are connected to Josiah as well. Josiah is like a father to both Betonie and Tayo. Josiah was involved with Betonie’s mother, the Mexican woman, and served as a father figure to Tayo as well, essentially making Betonie and Tayo brothers.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  7. What Betonie means by witchery is the fear of the unknown. He said that one misstep or a singer that changes a song could cause a total catastrophe(142). Back then and even now there is the term witchcraft that is not defined very well and is therefore and unknown practice. The fact that is is so unknown is what makes it so very feared.

    Betonie is angry that the Indians did create the white people, a long time ago, by giving them the chance to live when the first time they came to the Indians' land. Now, however, everything was taken from the Indians. The white men took the best land from the Indians and now use them as a side show to draw in attention and money. It is a blanket hate from long ago, and Betonie still feels it.

    The relationship between Tayo and Betonie is very confusing. It is more than the relationship between the healer and a patient. It is much more like a friend and a confidant. They are also people that push each other into sharing things and finding what it is that they truly need to do.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. e-book Kindle edition.

    ReplyDelete
  8. What Betonie means by "witchery" is that he is talking about the evilness of people. He says that "not all evil resides with white people"(Silko 122), and that other groups of people participate in witchcraft. He is also talking about white people's cultures and their differences from the Native Americans.

    What Betonie means by the "invention of the white people" is that their existence was predicted during witchcraft. He also means that Native American tribes helped create the lifestyle of white people because he said that "we can deal with white people, with their machines, and their beliefs" (Silko 122). It also seems that he is saying that Native American tribes existed before Europeans.

    The relationship between Tayo and Betonie is that it seems that Betonie is trying to help with Tayo's problems. Tayo is suffering from post traumatic stress, so it seems that Betonie is trying to help Tayo overcome his problems.


    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  9. In the novel “Ceremony,” Betonie states, “white people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people… because we invented white people” (122). Indians used to do rituals to please the land around them so they were able to continue the peace with the land. If people were to be unappreciative of the environment, then Mother Nature may not bless them with rain, or crops. In “Ceremony” they told a story about how all of the best witch people in all the land came for a contest to see who could make the best spell. One man sat in the corner and then told the story of how a white skinned man would come to the land and destroy all things. All of the other witches declared him the winner.
    Tayo has posttraumatic stress disorder and needs help to get rid of it. So he goes to the medicine man, Betonie. Betonie and Tayo have an interesting relationship. Betonie is Tayo’s healer but he is also other things to him as well. Betonie’s mom is the Mexican women that had relations with Josiah, Tayo’s uncle. Tayo himself also had relations with the Mexican women. They are connected in many different ways.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  10. In the novel "Ceremony", Betonie uses the word "witchery." By this, he is talking about the evilness of people, especially the white people. Betonie also claims that "we created the white people". Here, he is referring to the story about the witch who created white people's existence and she predicted that they were coming over from Europe to steal and take over the lands from the Indians. Sure enough, not long after that story was told, white men came and stole the good land from the Indians and kicked them out.
    The nature of Tayo and Betonie's realtionship has several different views to it. There is the obvious one of healer and patient. Betonie is the healer trying to get Tayo to overcome his PTSD from the war. However, we have also learned that Tayo has slept with and has been involved with Betonie's mother, the Mexican woman, which makes for an even more confusing relationship between them.

    ReplyDelete
  11. In Leslie Marmon Silko's novel "Ceremony", Betonie refers to "witchery". He is using this word in a negative manner and referring to the evil of the white people. It is clear that Betonie sees white people as the enemy.

    When Betonie states, "We can because we invented white people" (122), he is saying that the Indians are the reason that the white people excel. Since the witch's story predicted this outcome, they consider that they foresaw this and actually "created" them.

    Betonie is Tayo's healer as he tries to overcome his PTSD. Tayo also had a connection with Betonie's mother, as did his uncle.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Silko, Leslie. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Books. 1977.

      Delete
  12. Back when white people first began to invade on Indian territory everything they did was considered “witchery” to the Indians. Since they were there first they just could not originally get used to other people on their land, and the white people came in and began changing everything. So to the Indians these unknown ways and tasks they were performing was considered “witchery” because they did not know how it would turn out, and change to them was evil.

    What Betonie meant when he said “we invented white people” (122) is literally what he said. Indians were around before white people, location wise. So according to their myths and beliefs everything the white people have accomplished would not have been possible without the Indians previous doings.

    Betonie and Tayos relationship is a very intricate thing. Originally Betonie was brought in to be Tayos healer and rid him of his problem that he has, but then they became really close, like really really close. There relationship is a lot like the beginning of a high school relationship, they both don’t know what they want so they are in denial about everything.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  13. In the novel Ceremony by Leslie Marmon Silko, the current journey of the protagonist (Tayo) brings us to a vital situation of a crisis of faith and who to trust in this cruel world he has come back to after war. Through a series of attempts to merge Tayo’s broken soul into an unforgiving, racist, and complicated life as a veteran of American Indian descent, he comes to meet with the character Betonie, who he believes to be a knowledgeable a medicine man source of earthly and cultural qualities.

    Through trusting conversation with Betonie on Tayo’s cousin Rocky, and his unease with his Friend Emo, and his other friends beliefs of a confusing society. It seems as though Tayo is searching for clarity in this man with him. I believe that when Betonie explained that, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people…because we invented white people" (122), his pessimistic view on culture and loose definition of “whitchery,” stems from his growth as a man from a Native American background who has been struggling way longer than Tayo, if only due to his age. “Whichery,” as Betonie labels it, refers to ancestral cultures that initially interacted with white people, more than likely a close definition to: “an unknown influence.” Betonie explains that, “They [the Indian culture] want us to believe all evil resides in white people” (122). Betonie is trying to build an understanding with Tayo explaining that they actually have been an influence on the white people claiming, “…it was Indian whitchery that made the white people in the first place” (122). Betonie explains that from the time white people came to this country they seemed to be in control, but in fact, they as Indians have been the power all along. There is a pessimistic undertone though that seems to point towards his almost siding with the white people in that the Indians brought a lot of this racism and segregation on themselves.

    What is truly important in this scenario is that Tayo is completely confiding in Betonie, if not breaking down with the unknown and confusing, and is taking in great depth what is being told to him. Betonie wants to say that the cultural ceremonies that he has previously been through do not deal with the white peoples, “…wars, their bombs, their lies,” (122) that have particularly affected Tayo because of their own cultures skewed vision on “healing”. Betonie with a broken man in front of him, is attempting to make sense of all that is happening, and build confidence in himself as a medicine man.


    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  14. In the novel “Ceremony” I believe what Betonie means by witchery is that there is evil in people. Mainly in white people, he also states that we” created the white people”(122). Which I think he was referring to the story of a witch who made white people and had them come from Europe and take the indians land. He also believe that the white people brought destruction along with them, which the witch controls.
    I believe that Tayo has a condition which came from being in war, which I believe is post traumatic stress. I think that Betonies relationship with Tayo is that Betonie is trying to help heal Tayo with his issues, and also as a close friend who is there for him when he needs it.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. e-book Kindle edition.

    ReplyDelete
  15. The Indian people are taught that white people are witchery. They are taught that evil is with the white people. This way the Native American people don’t look for what is really happening. They are taught to separate themselves as they watch their own destruction.(122)
    The witchery of the white people is the fear of them due to the fact they have separated themselves. As well as how the Indian men have returned from the white mans war. The men have PTSD and they are drunks and nothing seems to help them. The meaning of the creation of the white people is the Indians have allowed them to come and over take their land and leave them with nothing.
    Betonie and Tayo are connected due to Betonie being his healer. He helps Tayo open up and discuse what is wrong which will help Tayo heal.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  16. In Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Betonie, the medicine man, says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). Betonie is trying to explain that White people are just the factor used by the witches who deceived the Indians by convincing them of their negative effects on their culture. The witches were able to convince the Indian people that the White people have stolen, deceived, and burden them greatly. Betonie directly states that “we”, meaning the Indian community he is a part of can deal with the White people.
    Betonie believes that the Indian people themselves created the hate they have for White people. Nobody forced them to hate the White man they themselves choose to do this. When Betonie refers to witchery he is speaking about the witches in the novel that convinced about the negative aspects of White people.
    Betonie is Tayo’s healer and also interconnected through Josiah. Josiah is like a father to both of them.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  17. In Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Betonie says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). When Betonie says "witchery" he means, when the Native Americans were in the US first the white people, pushed the Native Americans out. They believe that they were the ones that pushed the white people to industrialize and push the Native Americans into reserves. Just as when Tayo wished for the rain to stop while he was in the jungle at war. Althought his wish 'created' a drought in his home land. They all believe that the world is all connected, if something is wished or happens in one area then it will stop or is occurring in another.

    When Betonie says "we invented white people" he is saying that the Native American 'witchery' pushed the white people to act the way they did. As when they began industrializing the country and when they pushed all the Native Americans into reservations, when none of the Native Americans did anything wrong. Although it is just as saying, 'I wish the white people would leave me alone and move somewhere else.' Then the white people would end up moving and push other Native Americans out. Then the Native Americans that made the with would feel guilty for the others that suffered and were forced to move.

    Betonie's relationship to Tayo is that he has become is psychiatrist, to say. He is there to let Tayo vent and let everything out that he has been holding in and has been hurting about.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Rachel Wilks

    In the novel “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko Betonie says, “ White people are only tools that the witchery manipulates: and I tell you, we can deal with white people…. Because we invented white people” (122). Betonie uses the term “witchery” to talk about how evil people are. Betonie also says, “we invented white people” by this he means that since the Indians told stories and “painted” a picture of what white people would be like they essential created the white people (122).

    Betonie has a few connections to Tayo. The first connection to Tayo is that Betonie is his medicine man. Tayo goes to Betonie to try and overcome PTSD. The second connect that they have is that Josiah, Tayo’s father like fiqure, was in a relationship with the Mexican women. The Mexican women is also Betonie’s mother.

    Works Cited
    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  19. In Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony, Betonie says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). Betonie who is the medicine man talks about "witchery" because he is saying different types of cultures have different aspects on whites. Betonie then shows Tayo how the healing works at a Ceremony. Tayo tells him that this is how medicine men who are white were trying to keep him from doing the Ceremony.

    Betonie thinks that the Indians created white people because the witches saw what would happen in the end which is how they knew that Indians created the white people.

    Betonie gets Tayo's trust which leads Tayo to be able to open up with him and tell him how he feels about things. Also to be a sort of healer to him. Betonie knows Josiah who is the father figure to both Tayo and Betonie.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  20. In the novel “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko Betonie says, “ White people are only tools that the witchery manipulates: and I tell you, we can deal with white people…. Because we invented white people” (122)Betonie uses the term witchery to first off show the evil and corruption of the white man. Secondly, he says "they want us to believe all evil resides with white people. Then we will look no further to see what is really happening." (Ceremony Silko122) Basically, he is explaining that they can deal with the white man, and they are not dependent on us. By saying "we" created white people, they are inferring that the witchery that took place, created us. "Even without white people, there was everything, including witchery." (Ceremony Silko 123)

    Betonie is connected because he is Tayo's healer, as he is trying to cure himself of his PTSD. Also, the mexican woman is Betonie's mother.

    Works Cited
    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  21. In “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmom Silko, Betonie says “White people are only tools that the witchery manipulates: and I tell you, we can deal with white people…because we invented white people. (Silko 122)” Betonie said they invented white people because the indians told stories and they imagery of their stories showed what white people looked like. Witchery is used to talk about the evil inside of people.

    Betoine’s relationship with Tayo is that he is Tayo’s healer. Even though that’s what they are, their relationship has more meaning than that. They are like friends. They have a special bond that is more than just work related.


    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  22. When Betonie is talking about witchery, he is talking about their tribal ceremonies or rituals. It was common tale for Native Americans to congregate for gatherings and have large rituals where people practiced summoning supernatural events. In Ceremony, Betonie tells the story of one of these rituals where many witches gathered and had a “spitting contest” to see who was most skilled. The witch who won told the story of the coming white men who would destroy that which they fear. This explains why Betonie believe that “we invented white people.”
    There are two levels to the relationship between Tayo and Betonie. The first level is that of a healer and broken man. Tayo has PTSD and by talking and going through their ceremony does Tayo begin to overcome his illness. The second level of their relationship is that of a “familial” relationship through Betonie’s mother. Tayo can see Betonie not as an equal, but as a brother/father figure that truly can see him for what he is.

    Citation
    Silko, Leslie M. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Group, 1986. Print

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  23. In the story Ceremony by Leslie Marmon Silko, Betonie is the medicine man of the story. In one part he uses the word "witchery". He specifically says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122) Betonie is basically saying how the white people are being used by witches. That the white people are pure evil and should not be trusted. Also how they were solely created to take their land from them.

    Betonie and Tayo have a very interesting relationship. IN one aspect, Betonie is a healer and a medicine man to Tayo. He completely opens up to Betonie and he now has someone to confide in. On the other hand, Tayo did have a thing with Betonie's mother which could cause confusion and misunderstanding.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Betonie uses the word "witchery" to describe the evil in the world. These witches told stories about who could do the best tricks and they were all covered in animal skins; skins of the dead. The one witch that did not have the animal skins on told them that it had a story for them that will beat all their tricks. The story was to bring white people to the land to destroy it (Silko 124). Betonie claims they invented white people because they told the story back before the white people, and then the white people (the Europeans) came. The Indians did not really "invent" them though, it was the witches evil that did, so the evil brought the white people.
    The relationship between Tayo and Betonie is that they are brothers in a way. Josiah was Tayo's father figure when growing up and Betonie is Josiah's son with the Mexican woman, the "Night Swan." Betonie is also Tayo's healer so they are also related through that. They get to know each other and have a bonding experience through the healing ceremony.

    Works Cited

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  25. In the book Ceremony, written by Leslie Marmon Silko, Betonie states "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). What he is trying to say is that the people used to all be united as one. Betonie does not mean that they actually gave birth to the white people, but that they made it so two different groups appeared. They viewed those considered “whites” as outcasts and wanted nothing to do with them, because they looked different. Part of this is shown in the book, when Silko shows the reader how everyone thinks differently of Tayo, because he is son of a White and Indian. “Witchery” is considered all the bad things going on in this world, like war, destruction, and other harmful actions. Betonie thinks that it is not the white peoples fault that everything is happening, but that they act that way because of everything going on around them. For example, when men go to war and come back drunks it is because they are coping with the post traumatic stress of the war. In that case the war is the witchery causing the white men to drink.
    Through out the book, Silko reveals slowly how each character is related to each other. Some of the relationships are a lot more complex than others. The relationship between Tayo and Betonie is an example of one of the more complex connections. Tayo ‘s dad left him and his mother once he had found out she was pregnant. After a few years of living with his mother, Tayo was taken away and given to her mom, because the she was not caring for him like she should. Tayo grew up with his grandma, uncle Josiah, and Auntie. Uncle Josiah turned out to be more of a father figure for Tayo. Later on Silko revealed that Josiah had a mistress who is described as the Mexican dancer. This dancer also had a spent some time really “getting to know” Tayo. Silko also reveals that Betonie is the grandson of the Mexican dancer. What really makes the awkward situation is that Betonie is attempting to treat Tayo for his PTSD.


    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

    ReplyDelete
  26. In Leslie Silko's Ceremony, Betonie says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). Bentonie said this to explain what the Indians think the white men did to the land. They needed something to blame the evil in the world on, so they put the blame on the white people (Silko 122).

    Betonie and Tayo are connected because Betonie is Tayo's healer. They create this bond because they're out in the woods for days with each other. Josiah's mexican woman is Beotnie's mother and Josiah was Tayo's father figure growing up.

    Works Cited
    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  27. Kelly Scott

    When Tayo was talking with Betonie, he asked, “‘I wonder what good Indian ceremonies can do against the sickness which comes from [the white people’s] wars, their bombs, their lies’” (122)? Tayo believed that all of his struggles came from white people, and Betonie then said that the witchery designed it that way. However when Betonie spoke of witchery, I do not think he actually meant witches. I think the witchery is the ritualistic beliefs of the Indians. Throughout the whole story Tayo spoke of different rituals that he still believed in, but his brother Rocky did not. Rocky “deliberately avoided the old-time ways” (47), and as a by-product did not have the same witchery inside of him that Betonie spoke about. So as a result Rocky did not have many issues in life when it came to being outgoing and open to change. When Betonie says “we invented white people” (122), he meant that the Indians were the first to decide that the white people were their enemies; he is insinuating that the hatred is not reciprocated from the white people. The Indians created the monster themselves.

    Betonie and Tayo’s relationship is very unique. Betonie is the person that helps Tayo through his ceremony in order for Tayo to be released from his passed life that haunts him. Without Betonie, Tayo would probably be back at the Veteren’s Hospital or dead. However Tayo has also slept with Betonie’s grandmother.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York, NY: Penguin, 1986. Print.

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  28. In Ceremony, Betonie says, "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). Bentonie said this because of what they white people did to their land and the hatred they still have for them. They decided to blame somebody so they blamed the white people. Betonie is Tayo's healer, they are in the woods with each other for days so they bond.

    Works Cited
    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  29. In Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony, when Betonie refers to witchery he is suggesting how the people are possessed. In the context that he is using is not that the are taken over by a demon. They are people who look at things as objects and not as living amongst the creatures of the earth. Indians created white people because it a way for the Indians to place blame.

    Betonie’s relationship to Tayo is that Betonie is the medicine man performing the healing ceremony on Tayo. Not only is he connected on a spiritual level but also on a familial level. He is the son on the Mexican woman Josiah had relations with. This connection is made when Silko talks about how similar their eyes are.

    Work Citied

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. _Ceremony_. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print

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  30. In “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmom Silko, Betonie says “White people are only tools that the witchery manipulates: and I tell you, we can deal with white people…because we invented white people. (Silko 122)”.. What Betonie is trying to say is that the term witchery is used to explain the evil ways of the white man back then. Betonie explains that first of all the whites only think they own the land, but in fact no one can own the land.Then he explains that the whites are only the invention of Indian witchcraft and tells the story of how at a great conference of witches white people were created and let loose on the earth like a contagion.
    Betonie's story of the invention of whites completely shifts the hierarchy in which people are seen. Not only are whites part of the Native American world, they are in invention of it and, furthermore, a malicious invention of its witches.Betonie and Tayo are connected because Betonie is Tayo's medicine man. They made this connection because they spent a couple of days with each other.

    Works Cited
    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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  31. "White people are only tools that witchery manipulates; and I tell you, we can deal with white people. . . . because we invented white people" (122). These words are quoted in the book “Ceremony” by Leslie Marmon Silko and are meant to relate to deeper meaning. In the literal sense, the Indians obviously did not “give birth” to the white people. When it says they invented white people, it means that the Indians drew a line of separation. They judged based on appearance, and the fact that the white men did not originate from the same roots. And since the white men did not treat the land with respect, thus the Indians had further prejudice. They needed someone to blame, so they blamed the white men and made the distinctions clearer. In response the white men, drew a line as well and we view their prejudice in the book several times.
    When the word “witchery” is mentioned by Betonie, he is using it in equivalence to the word “evil”. Witchery is another explanation of how the white people came to be. Betonie claims witched invented white people because of the tales they foretold. One of the witches had spoken of white men before the Europeans had traveled to America. One proposition can be argued, that the evil of the witches is what brought the white men over.
    First and foremost, Betonie is Tayo’s healer and medicine man. Throughout the story they start to open up to each other and create a closer bond. They are also related in a “brotherly” sense. While Betonie and Tayo are not literally blood brothers, they have a special brotherly bond. They both consider Josiah to be their “father figure”. Growing up, Josiah acted as Tayo’s father, and Josiah had a relationship with with Betonie’s mother as well, making him the father role.

    Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. New York: Penguin Classics, 1977, 2006. Print.

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